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榆神府矿区水体湿地演化驱动力分析
发布时间:2018-03-20

马雄德1,2,范立民3,4,张晓团35,张云峰6张红强3,5申涛3,5

1长安大学 环境科学与工程学院,陕西 西安 7100542长安大学 旱区地下水文与生态效应教育部重点实验室,陕西 西安 710054 3矿山地质灾害成灾机理与防控重点实验室,陕西 西安 7100654陕西省地质环境监测总站,陕西 西安 7100545陕西省地质调查院,陕西 西安 7100656西北有色地质研究院,陕西 西安 710054


目的:榆神府矿区地处毛乌素沙漠和黄土高原接壤地带,生态环境十分脆弱。分布在沙漠浅滩的湖泊、海子、水库、河流等地表水体,以及分布在上述地表水体外围一定范围的湿地,对黄河中上游能源化工区、毛乌素沙漠与鄂尔多斯高原生态系统、水资源调节和局部气候环境稳定起着重要的作用。近年来,由于人类活动、气候变化等原因,区域地下水位不断下降,对区内湿地水体及其分布产生了较大的影响。本文基于榆神府矿区地表水体循环规律的研究,利用Spot卫星影像对榆神府矿区湿地及水体面积进行解译,研究区内地表水体的演化规律,并分析其驱动力因素

方法:首先通过遥感影像数据提取1990200120113个时期地表水体及湿地的面积数据。主要使用Spot卫星数据,同时以ETMTM)数据作为辅助遥感解译方法以目视解译为主,在资料及野外调查的基础上,建立地表水体及湿地在不同影像、不同区域的解译特征,以基础遥感影像图为底图,以地表水体及湿地为基本单位开展遥感解译工作;再MAPGIS为平台,综合编制各类解译成果图件,并进行空间叠加分析,探索地表水体及湿地的时空变化规律;最后分析水体湿地面积变化的驱动力,并采用专家打分法确定了各驱动力因子的权重

结果:11990-2011研究区地表水体面积持续减少,1990年全区水体面积162.63km22001年减少至133.80 km22011年继续减少至103.84 km2,每10年减少约30km2,导致湖泊水库等面状水域收缩,面积变小,河流变窄或断流、坑塘消失等。2伴随水体面积减少湿地面积在1990年至2001年从55.86 km2增加到92.68km2,增加65.91%,但2001年后至2011年间,湿地面积减少至45.49 km2,减少了50.92%3)煤炭开采、气候、水源地开采和生态需水等因素是造成研究区地表水体及湿地面积呈规律性变化的主要驱动力,各因素权重分别为,煤炭开采破坏含水层结构,使大量地下水涌入矿井,降低地下水位减少对地表水的补给,进而驱使地表水体面积缩减,是主要驱动力之一。

结论:地表水体湿地面积的变化可以看作是地下水系统在外界作用下不断发展变化的结果,遥感技术具有很好的时效性,通过对比分析不同时期的遥感数据,即可掌握地表水体湿地的时空变化规律,进而从宏观上指导驱动力分析。为减缓榆神府矿区地表水体湿地减少速率,必须推行保水采煤技术,倡导节约用水,减少高耗水植被的分布。 

Objectives: The Yushenfu mining area is located in the Maowusu desert and the loess plateau interchange zone, the ecological environment is very fragile. It is the surface water such as lake, Haizi(very small lake), reservoir, river mainly distributed in desert shoal, and wetlands located over a certain range of surface water that play an important role for the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River energy and chemical industry, Maowusu desert and the Ordos Plateau ecosystem, water resources regulation and local climate and environmental stability. In recent years, due to human activities, climate change and other reasons, the regional groundwater level has been declining, which had a greater impact on the surface water and wetlands and its distribution. Based on the study of surface water circulation in Yushenfu mining area, this paper uses Spot satellite image to interpret the wetland and water area of Yu Shenfu mining area, and analyze the evolution of surface water and wetlands and its driving force.

Methods: Firstly, the area data of surface water and wetland in 1990, 2001 and 2011 were extracted by remote sensing image data. Based on the data and field investigation, the remote sensing interpretation method was used to visualize the solution. Then we take remote sensing image map as the basic map to carry out remote sensing interpretation work. Secondly , use MAPGIS as a platform to compose various kinds of interpretation results, and carry out spatial superposition analysis to explore the temporal and spatial variation of surface water and wetland. Finally, the driving force of the change of wetland area is analyzed, and the weight of each driving force factor is determined by expert scoring method.

Results: (1)From 1990 to 2011, the surface area was continually decreased. In 1990, the water area of the whole area was 162.63km2, and in 2001, it was reduced to 133.80 km2,103.84 km2 in 2011, there was a reduction of about 30km2 per10 years, leading to lake water contraction, river narrowed or broken.(2) The area of wetland with the decrease of water area increased from 55.86 km2 to 92.68 km2 in 1990-2001, increased by 65.91%. However, the wetland area decreased to 45.49 km2 after 2001 to 2011,decreased by 50.92%.(3) Coal mining, climate, water source and ecological water demand are the main driving forces for the regular change of surface water and wetland in the study area. The weight of each factor is ,respectively, it is the coal mining that destroyed the aquifer structure and made a large influx of groundwater Mine, reduced the groundwater level, and thus drived the surface water area reduction, is one of the main driving force.

Conclusions: The change of wetland and surface water can be regarded as the result of continuous development and change of groundwater system. The remote sensing technology has good timeliness, by comparing and analyzing the remote sensing data of different periods, we can master the temporal and spatial variation of surface water and wetland to guide the driving force analysis. In order to reduce the rate of surface water wetland reduction in Yushenfu mining area, it is necessary to implement water-preserved coal mining technology, promote water conservation and reduce the distribution of high water consumption vegetation.

注:原文全文原载《煤炭学报》2015年第5期。




来源:煤炭学报
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